Gallipoli Portraits

British soldier and field marshal Birdwood was born in 1865, in India. He died in 1951, in Hampton Court (Middlesex). He graduated from Clifton College and entered Royal Military College. He climbed the steps of his military career slowly. First, he became general, in 1917 and field marshal, in 1925.

He joined Hazara (1891), Isazai (1892), Tirah (1897-98) campaigns in India; Chagra Kotal, Dargai, Samphagha wars and military operations in Bazar Valley. During the South Africa Wars (1899-1922), he commanded the cavalry brigade. Later he became the military secretary of Lord Kitchener. In the Mohmand Campaign, in 1908, he was designated as the Staff Chief, in the same year he won "Distinguished Service Order.

In the First World War, he joined to the Mediterranean Expeditionary Forces. First he was designated as the commander of the Australian and New Zealand Corps; later he became the commander of the entire expedition. Between 1915 and 1916, he commanded the evacuation of the Gallipoli Peninsula, next the ANZAC Forces and then the French Fifth Army Corps.

British Admiral Carden was born in 1857. His father was Irish Colonel, Andrew Carden in service of the British Naval Forces.

Carden’s first military achievement was in the Egypt War, in 1882. Later, he joined the Suakim Operation (1894) and charged in Eastern Sudan. He joined the Benin Expedition (1897) in service of Sir Harry Rason. His was promoted to admiral rank, in 1908. He became the commander of Malta, in 1914 and later he replaced Sir Berkley Milne the Commander in Chief of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Forces.

Admiral Carden planned and commanded the unsuccessful Naval Attack of 18 March. Because of his weak health, Sir John de Robeck replaced him. Carden was given Sir title, in 1916.

British statesman and writer Winston Churchill was born in Oxfordshire on 30 November 1874. He was the eldest son of aristocrat Lord Randolph Churchill. Following his graduation form the Royal Military College he entered the army and joined the Boer War as a war corespondent. He was captured during the Boer War. After his escape, he became a National Hero. Ten months later he was elected as a member of the Conservative Party.

In 1904, he joined the Liberal Party and in 1911, he became first Lord of the Admiralty. His successful career was almost destroyed as a result of the unsuccessful Gallipoli Campaign. He was the father of the idea of an expedition to the Dardanelles, which would easily succeed with a naval attack. Nevertheless, the Turks defended the strait stronger than expected and the Allies failed to capture Istanbul. Churchill was the main actor of this failure and his opponents forced him to resign from the Admiralty. However, he returned to the government as the Minister of Munitions in 1917.

In 1924 he returned to Conservative Party and was given the job of Chancellor of the Exchequer (1924-1929). In 1939, he was appointed once more first Lord of the Admiralty and in 1940 he succeeded Neville Chamberlain as Prime Minister. During World War II he followed a successful military and social policy and established close relations with Roosevelt. It was in the same period he co-operated with Russia about the allies' Balkan policies. However, he was afraid of a Russian domination in that region, thus, he tried to persuade Turkey to join the war. He negotiated with Turkish statesmen in Cairo and in Adana, but refused to accept Turkey's conditions. After the war, he worked for establishment of NATO and EC.

Churchill won the election in 1951 and once more became the Prime Minister. In 1955, he resigned and A. Eden succeeded him.

He spent much of his last years writing and painting. In 1953, he received the Nobel Prize for literature and in 1963, US Congress conferred on him honorary American citizenship. At the age of 90, he died in 1965, in Blenheim Palace.

Some of His Works: Life of Lord Randolph Churchill (1906); The World Crisis (4 volumes, 1923-1929), Marlborough (4 volumes, 1933-1938); War Memories (6 volumes, 1948-1954)

CEMAL PASHA (1872 – 1922)
Ahmet Cemal Pasha was born in Midilli, on 6 May 1872. He finished the Military College, in 1890 and The Academy of War, in 1893. He joined the army with staff captain rank.

Cemal Pasha was assigned to the Second Army Corps, in 1896. Two years later, he became the staff commander of Novice Division, in Salonica. There he joined to the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP). He organised the military wing of the committee.

It was in 1905, when Cemal became a major and designated as the Inspector of Roumelia Railways. During this duty, he highly dealt with the committees propaganda. He designed the units of CUP, called as company. He became a member of Board of the Third Army Corps, in 1907. Here, he worked with Major Fethi (Okyar) and Mustafa Kemal.

When the Ottoman Empire entered the First World War, Cemal Pasha was the Minister of the Marine. Between 1908-1918, Cemal Pasha was one of the most important administrators of the government. He played a very significant role during the period of Government of Three Pashas (1913-1918). He was one of the designers of the government’s internal and foreign policies.

ESAT PASHA (1862-1952)
Esat Pasha was born Yanya, in 1862. He graduated from the Academy of War with staff captain rank. He went to Germany, where he stayed under training for four years. After Esat Pasha returned home, he was appointed as the assistant of German Goltz Pasha.

During Greek-Ottoman War (1879), he participated in the Staff of Yanya Army Corps. Later he gave lessons in the Academy of War.

Esat Pasha was sent to Salonica as the second commander of the Third Army Corps. He was recalled to Istanbul and accused by not repressing the movements of the Committee of Union and Progress. He was trailed in Yildiz but, with the declaration of the Second Constitution, he trial was dismissed.

Esat Pasha was appointed as the Commander of Gallipoli Group and participated in the Balkan Wars. He became a name with his successful defence of the Castle of Yanya.

During the Gallipoli Wars, Esat Pasha was in command of the Eastern Group. After the war, he became the Minister of Marine.

Esat Pasha died in Istanbul, in 1952. A selection of his memories was published in 1975.

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