Anzac Day

Anzac Day

On April 25, 1915, eight months into the First World War, Allied soldiers landed on the shores of the Gallipoli peninsula. This was Turkish territory that formed part of Germany's ally, the Ottoman Empire. The troops were there as part of a plan to open the Dardanelles Strait to the Allied fleets, allowing them to threaten the Ottoman capital Istanbul and, it was hoped, force a Turkish surrender. The Allied forces encountered unexpectedly strong resistance from the Turks, and both sides suffered enormous loss of life.
ANZAC Day as being the Australia's and New Zealand’s most important national occasion, marks the anniversary of the first major military action fought by Australian and New Zealand forces during the First World War. ANZAC acronym stands for Australian and New Zealand Army Corps. The soldiers in those forces quickly became known as ANZACs, and the pride they soon took in that name endures to this day as a result, one day in the year has involved the whole of Australia in solemn ceremonies of remembrance, gratitude and national pride for all our men and women who have fought and died in all wars. That day is ANZAC Day - 25 April. The importance of 'Anzac' to New Zealand is enshrined in law. The use of the term 'Anzac' has been protected since 1916. The current Flags, Emblems, and Names Protection Act 1981 (section 17) states says that, 'The Governor-General may... prohibit, regulate, or control the use in connection with any business, trade, or occupation of the word "Anzac" or of any other word that so closely resembles the word "Anzac" as to be likely to deceive or mislead any person.'

The Importance of Anzac Day
In 1914, Australia had been a federal commonwealth for only fourteen years. The new national government was eager to establish its reputation among the nations of the world. In 1915 Australian and New Zealand soldiers formed part of the allied expedition that set out to capture the Gallipoli peninsula to open the way to the Black Sea for the allied navies. The plan was to capture Istanbul, capital of the Ottoman Empire and an ally of Germany. They landed at Gallipoli on 25 April, meeting fierce resistance from the Turkish defenders. What had been planned as a bold stroke to knock Turkey out of the war quickly became a stalemate, and the campaign dragged on for eight months. At the end of 1915 the allied forces were evacuated after both sides had suffered heavy casualties and endured great hardships. Over 8,000 Australian soldiers were killed. News of the landing at Gallipoli made a profound impact on Australians at home and 25 April quickly became the day on which Australians remembered the sacrifice of those who had died in war.
Though the Gallipoli campaign failed in its military objectives of capturing Constantinople and knocking Turkey out of the war, the Australian and New Zealand troops' actions during the campaign bequeathed an intangible but powerful legacy. The creation of what became known as an "Anzac legend" became an important part of the national identity of both nations. This shaped the ways they viewed both their past and their future.

ANZAC Requiem:
On this day, above all days, we remember those Australian and New Zelland men and women who died or suffered in the great tragedy of war.
On the morning of April 25th, 1915, Australian and New Zealand troops landed under fire at Gallipoli, and it was then and in the violent campaign which followed, that the ANZAC tradition was forged. The elements of that tradition have inspired and offered an enduring example to later generations of Australians.
Each year the commemorations follow a pattern that is familiar to each generation of Australians and NewZelland. A typical ANZAC Day service contains the following features: introduction, hymn, prayer, an address, laying of wreaths, recitation, "The last post", a period of silence, "The rouse" or "The reveille", and the National Anthem. At the Australian War Memorial, following events such as the ANZAC Day and Remembrance Day services, families often place red poppies beside the names of relatives on the Memorial's Rolling on.

Anzac Day services on the Gallipoli Peninsula are conducted by Turkey, Australia, New Zealand, Britain and France. Seervices are held on 24 and 25 April.
The times below for the commemorative services are indicative and may change.

Tuesday 24 April
09:00-10:40 Turkish International Service, Mehmetcik Abide
11:00-11:25 French Memorial Service, Morto Bay
11:45-12:10 Commonwealth Memorial Service, Cape Helles

Wednesday 25 April
05:30-06:15 Dawn Service, Anzac Commemorative Site, North Beach
10:30-11:15 Australian Memorial Service, Lone Pine
11:30-12:15 Turkish 57th Regiment Memorial Service
12:30-13:15 New Zealand Memorial Service, Chunuk Bair

All the commemorative services are open to the public. However, due to the walking distances between the commemorative sites, it is generally not possible to attend all services on 25 April. Those attending the Dawn Service at the Anzac Commemorative Site can go on to attend the Australian service at Lone Pine, the Turkish 57th Regiment service or the New Zealand service at Chunuk Bair.

Dawn Service to Lone Pine
After completion of the Dawn Service at approximately 06:15 hours, visitors are encouraged to walk along the coast and up to Lone Pine Cemetery. This 2.5 kilometre walk takes visitors past the Ari Burnu, Beach, Shrapnel Valley and Shell Green Cemeteries. The route is well sign posted.

Lone Pine to Turkish 57th Regiment Memorial
After the conclusion of the service at Lone Pine there is only limited time to walk from Lone Pine to the Turkish 57th Regiment Memorial service. The Turkish service starts approximately fifteen minutes after the conclusion of the Lone Pine service. The walk between these two services is approximately thirty minutes.

Lone Pine to Chunuk Bair
The walking time between Lone Pine and Chunuk Bair is approximately one hour and fifteen minutes. The route slopes uphill past the Turkish 57th Regiment Memorial and is approximately 3.3 kilometres. As you walk to Chunuk Bair, please respect the fact that a Turkish service is in progress at the Turkish 57th Regiment Memorial.

Management of traffic at the commemorations is the sole responsibility of the Turkish Jandarma. The number of large vehicles on narrow roads with limited turning facilities means that traffic control remains a major challenge. Travel by passenger car to these services is not permitted. Those attending Anzac Day services on the Peninsula should note these limitations and expected delays and plan their visit accordingly.
Coaches will not be permitted to travel through the Anzac Commemorative Site from the afternoon of 24 April 2007. It is anticipated that coaches will be stopped short of the site and visitors will be required to walk from the drop off point to the Anzac Commemorative Site, under 1.5 kilometres. Further information about traffic arrangements will be provided by the announcer on site.

Temporary tiered seating is installed at the Anzac Commemorative Site, Lone Pine and Chunuk Bair for the Anzac Day services. Reserved seating is only available for the official party and people requiring special assistance. Seating is not reserved for tour groups. There are tiered seating and ground areas where groups and individuals may sit.
Toilets are available at the Kabatepe Museum but few other places in the Anzac area. Temporary toilets and hand washing facilities are installed from 22-25 April inclusive at the Anzac Commemorative Site, Lone Pine and Chunuk Bair. There is no running water and no power or lighting except that provided by generators for the services.
Local Turkish food and drink vendors sell limited quantities of their products within the Gallipoli Park. Rubbish disposal is provided and visitors are asked to dispose of rubbish thoughtfully or, where possible, take their rubbish with them.
The consumption of alcohol within the National Park is not permitted. Please do not bring alcohol to the commemorative sites as it will be confiscated on entry.
Lost Property
If you lose or find property during the commemorations, please notify a member of the Visitor Services Team (identifiable by their orange vests). Following the commemorations, enquiries can be directed to
The commemorative sites are very exposed to the elements and can be exceedingly cold in the pre dawn hours.
Those attending the services generally arrive at the Anzac Commemorative Site a number of hours before the commencement of the Dawn Service. Visitors will be seated or be standing on the grassed area of the Anzac Commemorative Site.
While safety lighting is installed at the Anzac Commemorative Site for the evening of 24 April 2007 and for the Dawn Service, visitors may wish to bring torches.
During April, the Gallipoli Peninsula can experience extremely cold temperatures at night, with high temperatures during the day. There is no shelter available at the commemorative sites, and there may be limited access to coaches during the commemorations. Coaches may be parked some considerable distance from the site. Visitors should ensure that they are appropriately equipped for cold, wet, and windy weather, and that they take appropriate clothing with them when they disembark from their coach on arrival.
Visitors should expect to walk several kilometres throughout the day. A small day pack may be useful to carry extra clothing and drinking water.
The lighting of fires in the National Park is prohibited.
First Aid
First aid facilities will be provided from midday on 24 April and during the day of 25 April.
Limited assistance is available for people who are unable to walk from the coach drop off point to the Anzac Commemorative Site and between services. People requiring special needs assistance can obtain further information from the Department of Veterans' Affairs by e-mailing, or telephoning (+61 2) 6289 4857. You can also write to:

Gallipoli Projects Section
PO Box 21
You should do this well ahead of Anzac Day.
The infomation above was taken from the official website of Australian Government Department of Veterans Affairs

Anzac Day Tips
Australians visiting the commemorative sites of the Gallipoli Peninsula Peace Park should be aware that only limited tourist facilities are available at these venues. During April, the Gallipoli Peninsula can experience extreme weather conditions. Overnight temperatures may fall below zero, high winds are common, and rain and snow are possible. Very warm temperatures may be experienced during the day, and visitors may be exposed to the sun for extended periods. You should be prepared for these weather conditions, and carry waterproof clothing, warm clothes and sunscreen with you. The large crowds, limited public utilities, traf?c and security arrangements can result in waiting periods. Visitors should expect to walk several kilometres throughout the day.

Visitors are prohibited from taking the following to commemorative services:
large backpacks (daypacks only permitted)
camping equipment (tents and portable stoves etc)
weapons of any kind.
Buy some food before coming to the Gallipoli Peninsula for Dawn Service.
Buy a foam cushion for the time you’ll spend sitting on the grass at ANZAC Cove and the National Services.
Try to bring a torch, snacks and water, hat/beanie, scarf, small blanket, comfortable walking shoes, WC paper, wet wipes, camera and any prescribed medication
Evening temperatures are low at this time of year. Pack warmer clothes and a small travel blanket. Bring a sleeping bag if you wish, though service organisers continually ask people to fold them away due to space constraints.
As soon as the Dawn Service concludes, start making your way to the Shell Beach turn-off to make the sometimes steep walk up to Lone Pine (Aust.). Chunuk Bair (NZ) sits at the top of the service road that Lone Pine sits upon. Chunuk Bair is a further 60-70 mins uphill. You’ll only have time to attend one National service, so head to the service for your country and take your place in readiness
Toilet facilities are provided at the Dawn service site, and in 2006 they were clean and plentiful. However, be patient.
Imagine the detritus a crowd can leave behind. Don't add to it. Take all personal litter with you. Don't leave it at Gallipoli.
Intoxicated persons will not be permitted to attend the commemorative services. Visitors are reminded that the consumption of alcohol and the lighting of ?res are prohibited in the Gallipoli Peninsula Peace Park. The Turkish law has severe penalties for the possession of drugs.
Visitors should take particular care on roads and walking paths within the national park. A high level of caution should be exercised around drop offs and road cuttings due to the fragility and instability of the area. All visitors are asked to:
strictly obey safety signage and directions;
be alert to traffic movements;
be aware of hazards from uneven surfaces; and
be alert to the danger that soft road edges may give way.

What Is Anzac Day
ANZAC Day is commemorated by Australia and New Zealand on 25 April every year to remember members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who in the Battle of Gallipoli landed at Gallipoli in Turkey during World War I.
The dawn service on ANZAC Day has become a solemn Australian and New Zealand tradition. It is taken for granted as part of the ANZAC ethos and few wonder how it all started
ANZAC Day - 25 April - is probably Australia's most important national occasion. It marks the anniversary of the first major military action fought by Australian and New Zealand forces during the First World War. ANZAC stands for Australian and New Zealand Army Corps. The soldiers in those forces quickly became known as ANZACs, and the pride they soon took in that name endures to this day. ANZAC Day is a National public holiday and is considered one of the most spiritual and solemn days of the year in Australia. Marches by veterans from all past wars, current serving members of the Australian Defence Force, and cadets, are held in capital cities and towns nationwide
New Zealand's Commemoration of ANZAC Day is similar, though on several occasions the day has become an opportunity for some groups for political protest. The number of New Zealanders attending ANZAC Day events in New Zealand, and at Gallipoli, is increasing. For some younger people, the sombre focus of the day receives less emphasis than do the more celebratory aspects of a National holiday. For most, though, the day is an occasion on which to formally pay tribute and to remember.
1990, to mark the 75th anniversary of the Gallipoli landing, Government officials from Australia and New Zealand as well as most of the last surviving Gallipoli veterans, and many Australian and New Zealand tourists travelled to Turkey for a special Dawn Service at Gallipoli. The service at dawn in Gallipoli has since become popular to attend on ANZAC Day. Upwards of 15,000 people have attended services in Gallipoli. Until 1999, the Gallipoli Dawn Service was held at the Ari Burnu War Cemetery at ANZAC Cove, but the growing numbers of people attending resulted in the construction of a more spacious site on North Beach, known as the "ANZAC Commemorative Site".

What does it mean today?
Australians recognise 25 April as an occasion of national commemoration. Commemorative services are held at dawn, the time of the original landing, across the nation. Later in the day ex-servicemen and women meet and join in marches through the major cities and many smaller centres. Commemorative ceremonies are held at war memorials around the country. It is a day when Australians reflect on the many different meanings of war. ANZAC Day (25 April) is observed in New Zealand as a day of commemoration for those who died in the service of their country and to honour returned servicemen and women.
25 April is the anniversary of the landing of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps at Gallipoli in 1915. On the first anniversary of that landing services were held throughout the country in remembrance of the 2,721 New Zealand soldiers who died during the eight-month Gallipoli Campaign. Since 1916 ANZAC Day has evolved to the observance we know today.
The Anzac tradition - the ideals of courage, endurance and mateship that are still relevant today was established on 25 April 1915 when the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps landed on the Gallipoli Peninsula.

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